A doctor tested Sammy Jankis when he was suffering from anterograde memory loss. During Leonard Shelby's investigation of Sammy, he organised a series of tests to see if Sammy could learn and remember through conditioning. The doctor set out 6 metal shapes on a table, some of which were electrified, and had Sammy pick up any 2 at random. Once his memory had faded, the doctor repeated the test with the same shapes electrified, to see if Sammy could learn by instinct to avoid the electrified ones. However, Sammy did not learn, instead just grew angry with the doctor, which led Leonard to the conclusion that Sammy's condition was mental, not physical.